Collagen is a biological macromolecular substance, which is a white, opaque, unbranched fibrous protein. It can supplement the nutrients required by all layers of the skin, enhance the activity of collagen in the skin, and have certain effects on moisturizing the skin, delaying aging, beautifying, reducing wrinkles, and nourishing hair. According to "Peptide Nutrition" (a textbook of the Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University), small molecule collagen can be directly absorbed by the human body without being decomposed, and it has obvious effects in oral absorption and external skin care.
Common supplements are as follows:
1. Oral collagen-containing food
For example, drink more bone broth rich in collagen, oral collagen supplements, etc. However, because a large part of it will be filtered out by the human digestive system, and the amount that can really reach the skin and work is very limited, the process is relatively lengthy and inefficient.
2. Direct subcutaneous injection
It is mainly used for filling deep wrinkles, defects caused by skin damage (such as acne scars) and repairing facial defects. However, the collagen injected into the skin will be gradually absorbed by the human body, so its effect can only be maintained for half a year to a year. , and a small number of people may experience side effects such as allergies and infections.
3. Oral small molecule collagen
It is best to use pure natural and no added small molecule collagen peptides to truly enter the dermis layer to help repair the skin and rebuild the collagen layer
1. After macromolecular collagen enters the human body, it needs to be degraded into small molecular collagen peptides and amino acids before it can be absorbed by the human body. There are not many components that are really effectively absorbed.
2. It is usually not recommended for pregnant women to take collagen products, because pregnant women are objects that need high protection, and they need to pay attention to taking any medicines and nutritional products. However, there are no reports or trials of adverse reactions caused by taking collagen and no relevant scientific authoritative articles.
3. Collagen extracted from pigs and cattle can nourish the skin, keep the skin elastic and not rough, but it contains a lot of fat, and it is easy to gain weight by taking this type of collagen. Therefore, it is recommended to take fish collagen, which does not contain fat and will not cause the body to gain weight.
Domestic and foreign academic circles have obtained sufficient clinical trial evidence to prove that small molecule collagen has obvious effects in oral absorption and external skin care. The Department of Dermatology of the Air Force General Hospital, the General Hospital of the Beijing Military Region, Xiyuan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine and other authoritative hospitals have conducted specialized clinical studies to show that the absorption and utilization rate of small molecules of collagen can reach more than 90%.
Li Yong, director of the Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University, pointed out in the book "Peptide Nutrition" that the absorption of small molecular peptides has the following characteristics:
(1) No need for digestion, direct absorption: there is a protective film on the surface, which will not be subjected to secondary hydrolysis by human pepsin, pancreatin, amylase, digestive enzymes and acid-base substances, and it directly enters the small intestine in a complete form, Absorbed by the small intestine, enter the human circulatory system, and exert its functions;
(2) Absorption is particularly fast: the time it takes to absorb into the circulatory system, just like intravenous injection, plays a role quickly;
(3) It has the characteristics of 100% absorption: when it is absorbed, there is no waste and excrement, and it can be fully utilized by the human body;
(4) Active absorption: H+-dependent carrier-mediated absorption and diffusion absorption coexist;
(5) Zero burden: when absorbing, it does not need to consume human energy or consumes very little energy, and does not increase the burden on the gastrointestinal tract;
(6) It acts as a carrier: it can transport various nutrients that people eat to various cells, tissues and organs of the human body. Therefore, the smaller the molecular weight, the easier it is to be absorbed by the human body.
1. Low immunogenicity
As a medical biomaterial, the most important feature of collagen is its low immunogenicity. Collagen has three types of antigen molecules, the first type is the non-helical telopeptide of the collagen peptide chain, the second type is the conformation of the triple helix of collagen, and the third type is the amino acid sequence of the a-chain helix region. The second type of antigenic factor only exists in natural collagen molecules, the third type only occurs in denatured collagen, and the first type of antigenic factor exists in both natural and denatured collagen.
Biocompatibility refers to the good interaction between collagen and host cells and tissues. Whether it is used as the skeleton of a new tissue before being absorbed, or is absorbed and assimilated into the host to become a part of the host, it has a good interaction with the matrix around the cell, showing the coordination of mutual influence, and becomes the normal physiology of cells and tissues. part of a functional whole.
Collagen can be degraded by specific proteases, ie biodegradable. Because collagen has a tight and firm helical structure, most proteases can only cut off its side chains. Only specific proteases can degrade collagen under specific conditions, and collagen peptide bonds will be broken. Once the peptide bond of collagen is broken, its helical structure is destroyed. The fragmented collagen polypeptides are thoroughly hydrolyzed by proteases.
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